There are many methods of CL which are given below:

  • Group Investigation (GI)
  • Learning Together (LT)
  • Reciprocal Teaching of Reading (RTR)
  • Cooperative Integrated and Composition (CIRC)
  • Jigsaw I
  • Jigsaw II
  • Student Team-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
  • Team-Games-Tournaments (TGT)
  • Team Assisted Individualization (TAI)


These are the methods of CL but here author would like to discuss about only three methods which she has applied in her research work i.e. Learning Together, Jigsaw I, and STAD


Learning Together (LT):

Learning together has been developed by Johnson and Johnson (1999) at the University of Minnesota.  In this method of CL mostly the groups are heterogeneous in nature with respect to sex, race, ethnicity, reading comprehension or language ability. In this method there are three to six students working together to achieve the learning goal. This method seems to be very much group-skill-based than other method of CL. In this method actual cooperation and getting along together in-group considered as a necessary part of group learning. This method also allows teacher to follow his/her own procedure based on their student’s and circumstances. As far as evaluation is concerned, they are evaluated for both participation and performance of group. There is a same grading for all team members, regardless of differences in their contribution to the success of group.


Jigsaw I:

Aronson et al. (1978) developed Jigsaw at the University of California. In using this strategy first there is a creation of gap in students’ information and using this gap as further involvement of student in learning process. This information gap emerge the need of interaction and cooperation. Because of the need they feel, team members enthusiastically listen to their teammates which also developed their group skills and able to take active participation. The lesson that is taught divided in small parts and it  given to group to learn and which groups have the common unit, they will also interact with each other to clear their doubt. Then they take turn to teach what they learnt to their teammates. Now, all teams have filled their gaps of knowledge. At the end of the lesson all students will take a test over the information, which they have learnt. In this method evaluation has done both based on individual performance and group performance which will more likely to enhance individual accountability.



Slavin (1978) developed Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) which is another popular method of CL. This method pays more attention to presence and role of the teacher. In this method, first teacher presents the lesson in a way s/he likes. Then teacher gives worksheet to the students to learn some part of the lesson in group. Students learn it in pair who has the same part to learn. Then student assigned to help each one to reach his or her highest level of achievement in group. Like in the Jigsaw method, students are evaluated individually. Team recognition is based upon individuals’ improvement and teams that achieve above designated standard earn certificates or other team reward.

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