According to Gillies, (2007) “The key components of cooperative learning are: Positive interdependence, Promotive interaction, Individual accountability, small-group interpersonal skills, and Group processing skills.”
In cooperative learning, if group wants to achieve its goal, it’s requiring not only complete individual task but also to ensure that other group member do likewise. The technical term for this dual responsibility is positive interdependence. All members’ success is dependent upon the success of other group members. Everyone has to complete his or her specific goal and gave the contribution for the group success. Each group was then observed and rated on the basis of their discussion, orientation, self-centeredness, involvement, communication, attentiveness and acceptance or rejection of each other’s idea.
Promotive interaction involves student’s encouraging and facilitating each other’s efforts as they work together. Group members provide information and assistance to each other, and also give feedback to help in improving performance of the students. They access to resources and materials which are needed to complete the tasks. According to Mercer, (1996) “When children dialogue together, they learn to use language to explain the ideas and experiences, negotiate meaning around a task, and develop new ways of thinking and behaving that they may not have previously considered.”
It involves group members accepting personal responsibility for their contribution for attaining the group’s goal. This includes not only being responsible for completing once individual task but also ensuring that others complete theirs. It has been suggested that when positive interdependence is well structured in a group, members will feel more personal responsibility for contributing to the collective efforts and be less likely to free load on the efforts of others.
Small-group and interpersonal skills:
In interpersonal and small group skills, students have to learn these skills to cooperate comfortably with each other. If they learn both of these skills, they can do their work easily and effectively without facing any difficulties or conflicts. Teacher should teach them these skills. For example, teacher should make pupils understand to behave in a proper way in a group and not to give any negative comment to any group member. For that teacher should aware students about the skill of positive feed back.
Group processing skills:
Group processing is critically important for student learning as it allows members to discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships. Group processing involve the student’s ensuring that everyone in the group engaged in one of three social skills: (a) summarizing group member’s ideas and information, (b) encouraging members to participate in group discussion, and (c) checking to ensure that decision made by the group were supported by members.
Some of the keys to successful group processing are allowing sufficient time to take place, providing a structure for processing, emphasizing positive feed back, making the processing specific rather than general, maintaining students to use their cooperative skill.
In a way the components of cooperative learning provides the frame work of working with the group. It explains the process of learning with in the group which helps individual to behave and learn in proper way. Here, the role of teacher also takes place for molding students’ behaviour in proper way.